The economy of Saudi Arabia is based mainly on oil on which stocks it wins first place in the world (35,5 billion ò, or 25 % of world reserves). Currency receipts from oil have reached 45 billion US dollars, or approximately 85 % of all incomes of export. High incomes of oil promote the accelerated industrial development within the limits of five years' plans. Growth of an industrial output in 80 - 90th of XX century reached 10,5 % a year that is considered one of the best parameters in the world. The mining branch, manufacture of chemicals, building materials, hardware, plastic, fabrics, food stuffs intensively develop. Impress successes of Saudi Arabia in an agriculture.
The country completely provides itself with the basic food stuffs and even exports wheat, vegetables, eggs, fowl, etc. Extent of roads with a firm covering 130 thousand in km, railways - makes 1150 km. The network of oil pipelines is strongly developed. In the country function 3 international and 22 internal airports, 9 sea trading ports. The overwhelming majority of indigenous population - arabs. Language - Arabian.
Now In Saudi Arabia work nearby 7 million foreigners. For realization of programs of economic development the royal government widely resorts to import of a labour. In Saudi Arabia you will seldom meet the qualified worker-Saudian because physical work never stood high in esteem in this country, aboriginals prefer to work in trade, banks, official bodies, to serve in army. 15 more - 20 years ago the quarter of the population of kingdom was made by nomads-bedouins who moved with the cattle and belongings from a pasture to a pasture, from a well to a well on many tens kilometers.
Processes of modernization, industrialization and a urbanization of the Saudi society were accompanied by disintegration of former ways of life. Farmers and Bedouins have directed in cities. In 1990 only 5 % of inhabitants of the country remained nomadic and 10 % half of nomadic. Processes of formation of a modern society, especially average layers - technical and humanitarian intelligency, workers of education, public health services, social security, the lowest and average part of the administrative device, islam mandates were sharply accelerated.
The royal government gives great value to development of formation in the country. The education system covers 3,4 million pupils. In Saudi Arabia - 15 high schools, 7 universities, 17,5 thousand schools. Riyadh - the largest trade and economic and cultural center of the country. Here government agencies, palaces of emirs, large banks, the trading and insurance companies, embassies of the foreign states, the first class hotels are concentrated.
City ultramodern multi-storey buildings expand promptly, erected. As well as in other cities of kingdom, the western style here is reasonably combined with arab-Muslim traditions. In Saudi Arabia, in the field of Hijaz where in the beginning of VII century there was an islam, there are "sacred" cities of Mecca (400 thousand inhabitants) and Medina (210 thousand inhabitants). In Mecca the founder of an islam Mohammed (nearby 570) was born . In Medina it has been buried in 632 of Mecca of the Vicinity in radius of 18 km also are considered as the "sacred" ground on which has no the right to step any foreigner. Last decades in connection with growth of a petroleum industry there were greater modern cities - Dahran, ports Dammam and Al-Dju-Bell in Persian gulf. Old harbour Janbu at coast of Red sea, accepted earlier only pilgrims, became one of industrial centres of the country.
Development of the city-port of Al-Dzhubejlja also can be an example for new orientation of the government to creation of a diverse industrial infrastructure. Here the large complex of the steel-smelting and petrochemical industry, powerful station desalinizations sea water for life-support most of Al Dju-Bell and capitals of Riyadh, powerful gas-distributing the station, the mechanized and automated port, capable to serve the advanced vessels are constructed.