The New York history began, when the region was discovered by Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano, the first European explorer in 1524. In 1613, the first Dutch settlement, later called New Amsterdam, appeared in 1624. In 1664, the British conquered the area and renamed it New York. Under the British rule, New York City and surrounding areas continued to develop, but there was a growing feeling for independence that resulted in the American Revolutionary War, which lasted until November 25, 1783, the same day, when the last British forces left the United States. From 1788 to 1790, New York was the capital of the newly formed United States. The first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated at the Federal Hall on Wall Street on April 30, 1789.
With the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, New York grew as an economic center and the Tammany Hall became the major institution of dominating politics, economy and urbanization in the city from 1855 to 1897. Since the beginning of the New York history, each year the city saw the growth of economy, the development of the New York style architecture, culture and arts as well the continuous immigration. From 1790 until 2000, the population of the city grew from thirty three thousand one hundred and thirty one to eight million eight thousand two hundred and seventy eight, and it continues to expand today.
The turning point of all the New York history became the 20th century, when New York has gained a general recognition as the world's leading economic, financial and cultural center. The 20th century also dramatically changed the New York appearance, as the city began to gain its distinctive skyline that pioneered a new urban form with the building of skyscrapers. The first building to bring the world's tallest title to New York was the New York World Building, 1890. Some skyscrapers were not only buildings and samples of the advanced architecture. The Twin Towers of the New York World Trade Center became symbols of New York grandness and majesty as well as the center of the world business. They were also the tallest buildings in New York.
However, the New York history is not only a story of continuous success and world fame; it is also a story of crimes, crises and disasters, attempting to shake New York belief in itself. The terrorist attack that brought the New York World Trade Center in debris and killed two thousand and six hundred people on September 11, 2001, was the worst disaster in the New York history. The disaster of 2001 was not the first terrorist attack of the New York World Trade Center. In 1993, terrorists drove a truck, packed with 1,100 lbs of explosives into the basement-parking garage at the World Trade Center. Despite the size of the blast, it left a crater 22 ft wide and five stories deep. Six people were killed and one thousand injured.
This year the construction of the memorial to honor those, who died at the World Trade Center in two terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and February 26, 1993, has been started. The memorial, called Reflecting Absence, will be built right on the place of the Twin Towers and will include two shallow pools, surrounded by leafy trees. The names of the victims will be etched in walls around the pools.