Artificial Respiration, forcing of air into and out of the lungs of one person by another person or by mechanical means. It is usually employed during suspension of natural respiration caused by disease, such as poliomyelitis or cardiac arrest; electric shock; an overdose of depressive drugs such as barbiturates or alcohol; or suffocation resulting from drowning, breathing noxious gases, or blockage of the respiratory tract. If the brain is deprived of oxygen for five minutes, it may be permanently damaged; slightly longer periods without oxygen usually result in death. In order to be able to make a
choice of individual means of breath protection, one should know types of
respirators and how to select a respirator. Following criteria should be taken into account:
1. Function principle and destination (assignment). 2. Design features. 3. Protective and operational properties' parameters. 4. Working zone air harzadous elements' structure and quantitive maintenance. 5. Your personal adaptability to a resrirator of your choice.
Because of the danger of even short periods without oxygen, one should be constantly aware of types of respirators and artificial respiration should always be started immediately. The mouth-to-mouth method, shown to be superior to the back-pressure and arm-lift procedure, is now recommended by the Red Cross and other first-aid organizations. In the mouth-to-mouth method the unconscious person is placed on his or her back with the head tilted as far back as possible to prevent the tongue from blocking the air passages. The victim's nose is then pinched shut, the reviver's mouth is placed tightly over the victim's, and the reviver gives four quick, deep breaths. It is essential to check that the chest rises with each inflation. If breathing does not resume, the reviver proceeds to give one breath every four to five seconds, allowing the air to come out of the victim's lungs between breaths. This is continued until the victim resumes breathing or until trained help arrives.
Known types of respirators are classified by a function principle and respirator's destination (assignment). Respirators are divided into filtering and insulating, depending on a type of protection administered. Filtering types respirators process
inhailed air containing hazardous elements, for which evry type of respirator is designed, with the help of filters, sorbents and absorbers. Industrial respirators and gas masks go into this type.
Filtering types of respirators
possess cleaning system where protective action is based on clearing inhaled polluted air by sorption, chemisorptions, catalytic oxidations and-or filtrations at its passage during a breath through the filter. To decrease the resistance of breath filtering, respirators can have the additional device for compulsory submission of air in the cleaning system. Filtering self-rescuers are used by miners only during coal and slate mines' accidents.They are actually single action gas masks for the protection of breath from carbon oxide and vapours used by miners in mine accidents. To restore breathing to a person who is choking, a rescuer gives five quick blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of the hand. If this does not dislodge the obstruction, the rescuer may use the stomach thrust, known as the Heimlich manoeuvre. The rescuer places the side of the fist against the victim's stomach, below the ribs and above the navel. Then, using the other hand, the rescuer thrusts the fist up into the upper abdomen once, followed by backslaps.
So, how to select a respirator.
With isolating types of respirators
air for breathing comes from a clean zone or from the source of a respiratory mix being component of respirator. They have a pumping system for delivery of clean air or oxygen from not polluted source.
The isolating respirators are used in case of the insufficient supply of oxygen, and protection filtering respirators are not available (when higher degree of protection is required). The isolating types of respirators are subdivided into hose and independent respiratory devices. Hose respirators can be self-acting. The air for breathing acts on a hose from a clean zone by the respiratory efforts undertaken by the victim. The hose respirators can have compulsory clean air delivery in an obverse part with the blasts, fans or from compressed air network,
once preliminary cleaning is done.
A machine for the administration of artificial respiration consists of a mechanical air pump connected by a flexible pipe to a tube passed into the patient's windpipe via the mouth, or through an artificial opening in the neck (tracheotomy). The pump rhythmically inflates, and allows passive deflation of, the lungs. The rate can be adjusted. If the patient tries to breathe spontaneously, the machine will react so as to allow this. Severe breathing difficulties may require help from such a mechanical ventilator. An external respirator called a heart-lung machine is used to maintain oxygen saturation in the blood during open-heart surgery. In this, a pump maintains the blood circulation and part of the machine oxygenates the blood, which flows out of the body via tubes inserted in the superior and inferior venae cavae of the heart. The oxygenated blood is pumped back into a major artery, such as the femoral artery.
Such types of respirators as oxygen regenerative respirators and self-rescuers, and devices are independent respiratory devices with the cylinders with compressed air. These means are applied at rescue and regeneration works in mines and in chemical industry works, with firefighters, underwater and other special services.