Former performances of organic and functional bodymind trauma organized all mental diseases in two extreme groups and opposed structure of a brain to its function. Such approach has brought more harm, than benefit to treatment of bodymind trauma, and now it represents only historical interest.
The modern psychiatry pays much attention to bodymind trauma on the one hand, and abilities of person to resist stressful influences, on the other - to a ratio between neurobiology and social factors.
The basic concepts of modern psychiatry are following:
1. There is a genetic predisposition for many mental diseases.
2. All mental diseases are accompanied by infringements of functions of a brain.
3. Displays of bodymind trauma depend on genetic factors, relations of the patient with associates and personality (shyness or openness, aspiration to risk and novelty or care, propensity to imagination, ability to emotional release, etc.).
4. Ability to resist stressful influences varies from person to person and appreciably depends on previous experience, especially the past and the childhood.
5. Stress can promote display of the latent pathology.
Unfortunately, the reasons of the majority of mental frustration are unknown, and consequently some people still consider that these traumas arise from lack of will or immorality. It is important to note, that the clinical picture in some degree depends on ethnic and cultural features and life experience.
However, the major displays of the majority of the basic mental illnesses are constant. The surprising similarity in the description of mental illnesses during different epoches point out to that, since ancient religious and medical manuscripts. The application of psychodynamic and psychological theories for an explanation and treatment of bodymind trauma is questionable.
At the same time, some positions of these theories are rather useful. We shall briefly revise them here.
The idea about the unconscious: feelings, ideas and the memoirs lays in a basis of all psychological and psychodynamic theories. The behavioural psychotherapy is based on behavioristic concepts. Many methods of this psychotherapy are based on an exposition - the going presentation to the patient with persuasive fear or uneasiness frightening stimulus. Such presentation usually takes place in obviously safe conditions with psychological support, and gradually leads to easing and then disappearance of fear, alarm and reaction of avoiding. Easing of alarm promotes confidence and the forces.
This method of emotional release exposition gives the best results when the patient has a subconscious connection between neutral, safe irritant (conditional) and menacing irritant (unconditional). At mental desensitization, medics gradually show the growing-on force frightening irritants, often combining them with methods of a mental relaxation. Sometimes these irritants are imaginary, and sometimes they are real. This type of psychotherapy demands much time and persistence - both from the doctor, and from the patient.