The history of intersex surgery is interwoven with the progress of the pediatric surgery specialties, pediatric endocrinology and pediatric urology, with our gradually more refined accepting of sexual differentiation, with the expansion of political encouragement factions integrated by sexual identity, also, in the last 10 years, by their uncertainty of controversy and efficacy of some procedures, their ethic and suitability aspects. Much flawed information has been issued in the media, especially in the Web. In this article we'll try to provide some brief impressions of intersex surgery purposes and the adjacent controversies.
Indistinct genitalia have always been measured as a birth defect. Since the early 1920s doctors have attempted to amend an escalating multiplicity of birth defects. Achievements have been often incomplete, intersex surgery purposes remained incompletely determined, and surgery itself has been often connected with slight or significant, temporary or stable complications. Performance in all areas of surgery is often revised in a pursuit for higher accomplishment rates and lower problem rates.
Nobody is more conscious of the instant boundaries and risks of a surgery than the doctors themselves, and for the harsher and more disabling birth defects, they believe that major rates of imperfect outcome are no disaster, but a dare to be beaten by making the techniques better. Reconstruction of the genitalia developed within this quest, but recently, almost every part of this viewpoint has been questioned.
Despite the representation of the advocacy factions, the surgeons started to listen. Most intersex surgery types were performed in a comparatively small quantity of hospitals. John Hopkins Hospital, the medical center that was probably most in charge of the intersex management model for the previous 40 years, and the main target of the criticism campaign lately, was as well the first to issue a succession of result studies.
During the last 5 years the pediatric endocrinologists, psychologists, gynecologists and urologists related with Hopkins re-evaluated all precedents of complete androgen insensitivity, micropenis, XY ambiguity cloacal exstrophy and congenital adrenal hyperplasia for patients observed as children and later adults, both operated or not. They tried to find and get in touch with all the patients to determine outcomes by survey, interview, and examination. They asked those people their opinion of their gender management and possible intersex surgery purposes and gave them some recent recommendations.
The intersex surgery purposes fluctuate with the form of abnormality, yet in every case they normally include some of the following:
1. To make the patient's appearance more common for his/her sexual background
2. To diminish effects of anomalous genitalia on psychosexual growth and gender distinctiveness
3. To improve birth defects or early injuries of genitalia
4. To improve the patient's sexual life and relationships
5. To improve the patient's fertility potential
6. To give a passage for menstruation
7. To prevent or lessen urinary area infections or impediment
8. To reduce cancer risk in anomalous gonads.
9. To seal open wounds or uncovered inner organs
10. To improve fecal or urinary continence
11. to correct birth defects or early injuries of genitalia
12. To improve potential for fertility.
And now you know. Modern medicine can correct just about anything.