Since the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, their application has expanded the field of radiology, which has played a significant role in medical diagnostics and, ultimately, in health-care and medical treatment. Skin damage as a result of careless use of X-rays led to the early recognition of their harmful effect on human tissue. From this knowledge, and from developments in dose measurement, specialized therapy systems have been developed alongside methods of administering radiation therapy, including improvements in higher resolution
in digital radiology systems; more sensitive detectors; better tube design; direct digital detectors; and film-less radiology.
Many devices come from parallel technologies; for example, video camera, television monitor, and computer can be combined with a rod lens telescope to form a high-definition endoscope video system to help surgeons see inside the patient's body. These individual devices have been developed as a single practical solution in answer to the clinician's needs for a system to assist in non-invasive or minimally invasive surgery. Other devices, such as the microscope, originally developed in the 17th century and re-engineered recently with the use of specially adapted lasers, enable the surgeon to perform microsurgery. This is high-precision work such as repairing a detached retina or reattaching the nerves and blood vessels of severed limbs. Great advances in microsurgery have enabled heart surgery, notably heart transplantation, to save the lives of thousands of people who formerly would have died. With advent of
digital radiology systems medical technology is now helping to avoid the need for major surgery. Kidney and gallstones can be broken up in vivo by directing high-energy sound waves at the body (lithotripsy). Major surgery and lengthy rehabilitation for knee injuries can be avoided using arthoscopic surgery
aided by imagematch service.
Modern multipurpose digital radiology systems include automated workstations (automated workplace) for doctors-radiologists, laboratory assistants and doctors - stomatologists equiped with sophisticated software. Evry computer aided workstation includes a personal computer, with specialized software for carrying a computer controlled imagematch service. Advances in computer image processing enabled reconstruction of pictures of organs to be made in new planes and projections, representations of organs "dissected free" from their surroundings, and the superimposition and synthesis of information from various sources, thereby making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) possible. The possibility of image-guided interventions for non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques can also be expected in the future.
Just as CT benefited from parallel developments in measuring techniques, software, and computers, other medical techniques have incorporated these technologies. From the work done on image slice reconstruction in MRI and PET, the same reconstruction principles can be used on, for example, the imaging of tiny electrical currents in the brain with the help of imagematch
The work of digital radiology systems includes panoramic mammography and a tomography of maxillary sine, temporomandibular ligaments with the subsequent scanning and the computing analysis of the digital image under the computer program with construction of roentgen - densogram. The diagnostic opportunities of the multimonitor computer system allow a stomatologist to work wiht a patient for hours with video-radiographic image in a real time mode (the patient is in a stomatologic armchair, the image is on the screen of the monitor). The doctor can update exposition: to change sizes, brightness, contrast, chromaticity of the image; to receive negative, positive, in a mode of peak relief and three-dimensional images; to carry out quantitative (linear, angular) measurements; to estimate on densogram characteristics. The doctor can discuss available pathological changes in a tooth and surrounding fabrics together with the patient. The complete set of services can be done in one place and in shortest delay.