Lace like fabrics such as embroidered netting and gauze as well as drawnwork abd cutwirk embroidery survive from ancient Egypt and Peru, and colourful medieval European network embroideries have been preserved. True lace, however, dates only from
the Renaissance, needle lace probably originating in Italy and bobbin lace probably in Flanders.
Both kinds were being made in the
mid-16th century. Early laces were
sometimes called punto in aria (stitch in air). The machine made lace appeared much later. For the machine made lace a lace of the pillow to which the ends threads were attached, reeled up by other ends on bobbins, looking like coils with the lengthenon a paper with punctured in places of crossing of lines was imposed. The skilled worker would stick metal pins in pinholes and, throwing bobbins one through another, he crossed the strings braiding pins. In the process of work, the lace makers stuck new pins, taking out old ones out of already plaited lace.
The machine made lace has classification according to the destination, to a type of material, character, patterns and relation to national crafts. According to the destination, we can define lace patterns and subdivide lacy products of manual weaving on utilitarian, decorative and souvenirs basis. First group embraces: household subjects - clothes, napkins, coasters, biscuit barrels and so forth; clothing - blouses, female dresses, tunics, pelerines; accompanying wear - ties, gloves of the various sizes and forms, kerchiefs, palatines, ladies' items, children's clothes and linen - collarets, inserts, cuffs, handkerchiefs. Decorative items are: various curtains, coverlets, strips of carpet, capes; souvenirs - unique thematic panels and curtains, bookmarks for books, etc. The machine made lace and lacy products should qualify to following procedures - standards and requirements of standards. Laces should be beautiful, strong and free of manufacturer's faults(weaving, knitting, finiishing). Laces and lacy products should be made from threads of one colour shade, identical on thickness, without units. The grid and a pattern of laces should not have tightened, weakened or missed strings, extra or missing loops.
Social and economic changes in the 19th century lessened the general enthusiasm for lace, and it dissapeared from men's clothing. About midcentury it came into fashion again in women's clothing. By this time, machine made lace bobbin mesh had almost completely replaced handmade lace mesh, and the
Levers machine, combining machine bobbin techniques with weaving techniques, was in use for manufacturing lace patterns. Being
machine-made, laces for curtains and
tablecloths became more affordable,
but handmade lace held more prestige
for garments. Bruge and other cities in Belgium continued to be lace-making centres, but other countries
also produced different kinds of lace. New varieties of lace developed: Brussels rose point or
point de gaze (gauze point) was a
fragile needlepoint lace. Duchesse was a bobbin lace with no ground, sometimes combined with needle point
lace. The 19th-century lace called
point d'Angleterre had needlepoint and bobbin lace details on a bobbin lace ground. Some French centres made silk laces- Chantilly and blonde (at first a term for unbleached beige silk lace, but later used for white and black silk
lace). Peasant laces were made throughout Europe, and red and blue
Russian peasant laces became famous.
Lace-like fabrics also flourished,
notably in Ireland, which produced
Carrickmacross (delicate embroideries joined by brides or a reseau), Limerick lace (a finely embroidered net), and Irish crochet
After about 1900 to 1910, machine made lace became more widespread. Large quantities of lace were made in China for export to Europe and the United States. The success of machine manufacture, together with the social changes brought about by World War 1, dealt a deathblow to the craft of lice-making everywhere. Lace-making by hand survives somewhat feebly in some of the old lace centres, and it is occasionally practised as an amateur craft.
There is hardly a needleoperator who is not familiar with majority of existing machines types. The machine knitting began in the twentieth century and is called tambour,acrame in the translation from Arabian means a band, a lace. It is translated from Turkish as a scarf, a napkin with a fringe.