The fashionable laces of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
were made using bobbins or needle,
and these are still the two main
techniques. However, lace can also be made using a crochet hook, knitting needles or a tatting shuttle, and machine-made nets can
be embroidered to give patterned laces. The filet lace, as indicates lace review, had a very figurative name: a stitch in air (pinto in aria). Fabrics as basis was missing and it was carried out by a needle per loopy seam on a pattern drawn on a paper. Humans invented the basis of a fillet - a grid - since the most ancient times, as the means for hunting and fishing. People learned making grids early. In due course, this art was improved, and bent it for embellishment purposes. In Persia, the ancient fillet was performed with gold and silver embroidery.
Filet lace, as lace review shows, is classified into two basic groups - simple fillet and fillet - guipure, or embroidered fillet. By the form of cells, a direct and slanting fillet is distinguished. A cell had the rhomb form in a slanting fillet. In a direct fillet there were square cells. The basis of a beautiful fillet background is the correct execution of units. Shuttles are necessary for weaving a grid and a stick. Imagine a needle with the specific endings.In one of apertures passes a thread and winds it up along a shuttle. For works with thick threads wooden and bone shuttles, and for thinner works, steel were used.The elementary shuttle can be made of a wire. As lace review specifies, second adaptation for a fillet being sticks with the sharpened ends on which string cells of a grid reside. The size of cells depends on thickness of a stick. Sometimes for thin works a thick knitting spoke is used, and for reception of large cells - rods or shank. Sticks should be well polished, without agnail. Different threads for a fillet are used , from wool up to silk, including a clap and flax. Types of thread depended on the purpose of the future product. The quantity of threads on a shuttle should enable the shuttle with the threads to reel up on it freely, passing through a cell of a fillet. Too many threads can stretch cells of a fillet!
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the
principal centres of lace-making were Italy (notably Venice and Milan), France and Flanders. Louis
X1V established abd subsidized filet lace-making centres in France and forbade the importation of foreign laces. Later in 17th century, as lace review reveals, patterns changed in character, Renaissance symmetry giving way to rich Baroque designs. Important 17th-century types include -gros point de Venise (Venetian large point), with large, leafy scrolls, often in heavy relief, supported by brides; the somewhat later -punto alla rosa (Venetian rose point), in which the venetian lace patterns become smaller and the brides more
numerous and elongated.
There were two types of Venetian lace: on technological and on aesthetic attributes. The first definition is to a technological attribute: lace is the woven nodular knitting, executed with the help of shuttles (or needles), and manufacturing techniques of this lace. Definition of the second, to an aesthetic attribute (on F.Sheneru): lace is an open, planimetric, contrast lace with poor own texture. This kind of weaving has come from France. In the East, this lace was known and referred to as shuttle. The word frivolous means easy, unchained, and this occupation deserves such definition. Lace did not become a national craft, but was one of popular and fascinating female needle works occupation.
The different styles of lace are often named after the place where they were first made. It is precisely known that lace-making came to Russia from France.