The Birth and Development of Early Interior Design

The birth and development of early interior design. Where would we be without it? Early interior design seems to be rather young science, but it has existed for centuries. People have always wanted to live in beauty and comfort! Time passes and cannons of beauty and fashion changed, but people did not lose their wish. The names of Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Gerrit Rietveld tell much about its history.

The term ?design? has appeared much, much earlier. Digression to a history of design also is offered to be executed in this article. It appeared rather hard to define a reference point when there is such phenomenon as ?design?. It is difficult to imagine the designer in dirty clothes and with a cudgel in hands; however the need of the person to make the instrument of work more convenient, beautiful and functional has appeared together with these instruments of work. Already during antique time in philosophical discussions, the theme of a ratio of advantage and beauty created is mentioned. It determined a start of early interior design.

Therefore, still ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 up to AD) in the conversations - reasoning which have reached us in memoirs and retellings of philosopher Platoon - raised this problem in the conversations constructed in the form of questions and answers. Thus, as a rule, Socrates pretended ignorant, but during a reasoning deeply thought over and consistently asked questions resulted the opponent in the contradiction with his opinion and very much frequently in understanding of early interior design. As an example of a special originality of conversations, it is necessary to result dispute on beauty and the advantage.

Thus, it is possible to name Socrates the first authoritative expert on usability - apparently, the most demanded theme of modern web-design. Anyway, the ideas sounded in the given conversation, it is possible to take for a basis of the theory of design for the user. We shall return to a theme of early interior design, only not to the recent times but to the last century.

Under the initiative of progressive artists of England the first design organization ?The Society of Encouragement of Art of a Manufactory and Commerce? (1836) was created, and in 1849 the first magazine on problems of early interior design, the subject ?World Journal of Design? was issued.

Due to publications of this magazine, the engineers and designers start to realize internal logic of aesthetic development of the form of a product. The magazine declares the struggle for the formula to create the convenient form, and then decorate it, which embodiment resulted in increase of a role of ornaments. The stylistic attributes of different epoch mixed up in a decor of the form of products were characteristic for this period.

A significant step in development of practice and the theory of design activity was occurrence in Germany, in 1919. The Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Gerrit Rietveld, the higher school of Art Designing and Industrial Construction (Staatliche Bauhaus) appeared. Theorists and practice Bauhaus bring to the forefront a principle of unity of the form and function. The form was understood as expression of constructive and functional features of products.

Such attitude to aesthetic problems of manufacture of consumer goods has played the big role in clearing design activity of traditional easel arts and architecture. Bauhaus, together with institute of psychology carried out researches for influence of color on psychology. The color washed wallpaper has grown out of research.

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