Respiration, term with dual meaning in biology: first, the physical process by which living things (organisms) take in oxygen from the surrounding medium and emit waste carbon dioxide-in this sense it is variously known as physical respiration, breathing, ventilation or gas exchange; second, the chemical process by which fuel molecules such as sugars and fats are broken down within a cell to liberate energy for cellular life processes-in this sense it is also known as chemical, biochemical, or cellular respiration, and thus demands respiratory protection program.
The principal nervous centre for controlling the rate and depth of physical respiration is in the respiratory section of the pons and medulla oblongata in the brain stem. The cells of this nucleus are sensitive to the acidity of the blood, which reflects the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood plasma. When the acidity of the blood is high, usually caused by an excess of carbon dioxide, the respiratory centre stimulates the respiratory muscles to greater activity to "blow off" the excess carbon dioxide and take in more oxygen. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, breathing is depressed (slower and/or shallower).
Failure of blood circulation can cause suffocation of the tissues of the body-even when the external respiration is perfectly normal-when the volume of circulation is inadequate, or when the oxygen-carrying power of the blood is destroyed. And dust can be the reason of blood circulation failure.
In such situations the respiratory protection program against dust demands a special kind of air purifying respirators.
The term "respirator" takes origine from the Latin word, meaning breath. Respirators represent the facility to protect lungs from harmful gases, steams, aerosols, and dust. They have received a wide circulation in mines, at chemically harmful enterprises, at work with fertilizers and insecticides, at painting works, etc. The respiratory protection program includes using two types of respirators. First one comprises respirators in which half mask or filtering elements simultaneously serve also as an obverse part. Second one are respirators clearing the air by filtering cartridges, attached to half mask. The respirators are subdivided as per their destination on dust, gas and gas-dust proof. The dust respirators represent modern means of air purifying respirators protecting from various aerosols. Inhaled air is cleared from harmful substances by a filtration through fine-fibered materials of the CHECK POINT - 15, the CHECK POINT - 70 with perchlorovinyl fibers. They are water-repellent, steady at temperature up to 60, racks against alkalis and acids. They have high filtering ability to all aerosols. It is provided with uniformity of a filtering layer and the presence of electrostatic charges, which sharply raise the effect of catching of aerosols.
Air Pollution, contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odours. Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A by-product of the radioactive decay of uranium minerals in certain kinds of rock, radon seeps into the basements of homes built on these rocks, posing a risk of lung cancer to residents. Each year industrially developed countries generate billions of tons of pollutants.
The dust respiratory protection program is intended for the protection of bodies of breath against silicate, metallurgical, mining, cement, coal, radioactive and other dust. The respiratory protection program can be applied at temperature from-25 up to +60.
Modern products of the respiratory protection program include comfortable and convenient air purifying respirators.