As most of you probably know that surgery or surgical therapy ("hand work" from the Greek cheirourgia) is the medical specialty that treats injuries or diseases with the help of instrumental treatment and operative manual. There are many kinds of surgical therapy: endocrine surgery, cosmetic surgery, keyhole surgery, heart surgery, orthopedic surgery, laparoscopic surgery (including open laparotomy, laparoscopy operation), cardiovascular surgery, dental surgery, plastic surgery, oral surgery, bypass surgery and many others.
There are many surgical therapy methods for cancerous growth treatment, but unfortunately, these more radical surgical methods not always appreciably improve an outcome of disease. So, we have such conclusion that any improvement of outcomes at cancerous growth can be achieved only due to application of operation in a combination with other methods of antineoplastic treatment.
Preoperative preparation is very important for the patient. He can have bad trophic status, an anemia, electrolytic disturbance or infringements of blood coagulability disturbance, which adversely influence the course of the postoperative period and define lethality. All possible efforts for correction of these infringements before the patient will be taken on an operational table should be undertaken. If the decision on operation is accepted, it should be carefully planned. The best and frequently a unique opportunity of optimum surgical treatment are represented during the first operation. Enucleating or incomplete excision of tumors is never applied to treatment of patients with malignant growth.
Relapse of a tumor can arise because of its incomplete removal or because of semination by tumor cells of tissues of an operational field. After preliminary urgent biopsy performance all operational field should be repeatedly processed after bioptic section resuture. Tools and the gloves used during time biopsy should not be used after that.
Frequency of tumor relapses in anastomosis guts zone after a resection is about 10 %. Bandaging of a gut by a tape used for bandaging of an umbilical cord, an irrigation of edges of a resection solution dichloride mercury and excision of edges from both ends of a gut are the methods, allowing to lower frequency of relapses up to 2 %. Usually relapse is combined with system distribution of a tumor and the prognosis in such situations is negative.
Hematogenic metastasis is the main reason of lethal outcomes at the majority of malignant tumors. There is a correlation between detection of tumor cells in blood by the moment of operation and the prognosis. Moreover, manipulations with a tumor during operation can be accompanied with essential increase in quantity of tumor cells in blood. The measures undertaken for dissemination prevention of tumor cells during operation are minimal tumors traumatism, early bandaging of a vascular leg and using tourniquets at removal of cancerous growth of limbs.
Thus, there are not many methods for cancerous growth treatment, but most patients place their trust in surgical therapy.