There are many cases when a longer time for sperm storage is needed. Even some tests involving sperm specimen might need such a procedure. And, with the method of cryopreservation, it is possible to sustain the viability of sperm for a pretty long time. That method is also used to inject semen into a woman's cervix later. Today, all of the sperm banks use cryopreservation to store sperm specimen.
As you can easily understand, the main goal of cryopreservation is the possibility of pregnancy at a later time. It is also possible to store sperm that is now in a normal condition until such time that a man has only abnormal sperm. There are many different procedures like radiation therapy and chemotherapy that can cause damage to sperm formation or even destroy the entire process. In all such cases and when a man is out of the range of producing sperm production, this is after 45 years of age because the sperm is less active than a 23 year old man's sperm., it is recommended to store sperm specimen with the use of cyyropreservation. This will make insemination possible in the future.
But, there is no guarantee that this method will be effective because cryo sperm specimen processing damages sperm that lowers the possibility of pregnancy. The pregnancy rate with frozen sperm is lower than the pregnancy rate with fresh sperm. The major parameters that are affected by temperature are sperm viability and sperm motility. They are usually lower which lowers the fertility. And, that is probably the only risk that sperm specimen processing with cryopreservation has. Special studies don't show any birth defects after the use of frozen sperm.
Sperm specimen processing needed cryopreservation is actually not very complex. First of all, it is necessary to get some sperm samples. The most usual way to get them is by masturbation. In most cases, it is recommended to abstain for three days before, but no longer than 10 days before giving samples. In such special cases, to get sperm samples special techniques like vibrator stimulation or testicular sperm aspiration can be used. This is if the man can't ejaculate by himself. In the next stage of sperm specimen processing semen is analyzed. Regular tests like volume tests, viscosity tests, and a Ph. Level test are performed. Microscopic evaluation is also performed such parameters such as virility, sperm count, and morphology.
After all of these tests, it is possible to go to the cryopreservation stage of sperm specimen processing. Special cryoprotectant is added to the sperm specimen to lower and control the semen damaged by low temperatures. Then, the sperm specimen is divided into so balled cryo-vials that are placed into liquid nitrogen vapors; this process lasts for three hours or so. And, only after that the samples are placed into liquid nitrogen. As long as the temperature of the liquid nitrogen is 196 degrees Celsius all the metabolic activity is stopped. This allows the storage sperm specimen for many years.