The reasons of occurrence of a carcinoma (carcinoma causes)
According to scientists, by the year 2020 malignant oncological disease will affect nearly 16 million people, an increase from 10 million individuals in 2000. Such growth is caused by ageing and an increase of population, and also due to deterioration in the human lifestyle. Hence, decrease in disease can be reached due to preventive maintenance of a carcinoma, and also due to improvement of diagnostics and treatment.
The most effective actions of reducing oncological disease is to struggle against smoking, change eating habits, decrease of ultra-violet irradiation, mass prophylactic inspections (screening), distribution of recommendations (educational work). These actions have already lowered disease of a carcinoma in the Europe to 15 %.
How does the carcinoma and other tumors develop? In a study of carcinogenesis including developments of a carcinoma, underlie damage of DNA structure. The powerful system of reparation (restoration) of damages resists to carcinogenesis. Hence, the opportunity of starting tumor growth will depend both on quantity and properties of carcinogen, and on quality of restoration systems work. For this reason, decrease in receipt of carcinogens gives essential preventive effect, and "the bad heredity" demands closer supervision of patients.
Carcinogenesis is a multi-phase disease and it is frequent reversible process, that's why transition from one stage of Carcinogenesis in another (both forward and back) also depends on the set of external and internal factors which can both promote and counteract this process.
Heredity can increase the risk of development of a carcinoma. That is connected to either feature of a carcinogens metabolism, or with features of arising restoration of DNA damages. For example, there is a hereditary predisposition to fastening mutations in genes of retinoblastoma, gene-superssore Ð53, carcinoma genes of a mammary gland and carcinoma genes of ovaries BRCA1, BRCA2, genes of adenomatous polypus of a large intestine, non-polypus congenital carcinoma of a large intestine (HMLH1), neurofibromatosis (NF 1), etc.
Carcinoma causes: the cause of 90-95 % of malignant diseases is related to factors regarding the environment and a way of life:
- This part of carcinoma causes is very dangerous: smoking - the cause of 30 % of pathology.
- This part of carcinoma causes is not noticeable for many people: affects of diet (a high-calorific diet, adiposity, carcinogens in products, small quantity of cellulose in food) - 35 % of a pathology
- Infectious agents (viruses, the chronic centers of an infection) - 10 %,
- Professional carcinogens - 4-5 %,
- Sun damage - Ionizing and ultra-violet radiation (sometimes it can include prolonged sun exposure) - 6-8 %,
- Alcoholism - 2-3 %,
- Air pollution - 1-2 %,
- Reproductive (sexual) factors - 4-5 %,
- Low physical activity - 4-5 %.
According to it preventive maintenance of a carcinoma today should include:
Decrease in influence of carcinogenic substances (refusal of smoking, normalization of feed, etc.), and also revealing of carcinogens influence markers, vaccination and other actions.
Decrease individual risk of carcinoma development due to revealing people with the raised genetic risk.
Diagnostics and treatment of precancerous conditions due to revealing and treatments of people with precancerous attributes.
Intervention in the process of carcinogenesis and its leveling is already possible today. The information on markers of molecular-genetic changes for revealing carcinogen and early stages of a carcinoma constantly replenishes and increases. There is an opportunity of preventive maintenance of a carcinoma, pre-clinical diagnostics and its therapies at early stages of carcinogenesis that finally promotes significant decrease in the risk of malignant onco-pathology and installs confidence in struggle against an oncological pathology in the 21st century.