The above-mentioned neurosurgeons are top specialists in this branch. Swedish surgeon Lars Leksell made the first attempt and succeeded in building up the first stereotactic device used for humans. It's worth saying that their invention was primarily based on the method initially developed by Horsley and Clarke. The scientists used so-called translation system in their device. However, Leksell's device had a completely different nature and had another principle: so-called spherical.
It turned out such a device was far more convenient in the operation room for doctors. The concept of stereotactic localization was the basis of Leksell's next development - an innovative device which was planned to be used for radio surgery of the brain. This method kept on evolving, and nowadays uses a complicated combination of image-guided surgery using stereotactic localization, magnetic resonance imaging and intraroom computed tomography.
In 1968, he developed an apparatus called The Gamma Knife used for radiosurgery. The first prototype Gamma Knife was specifically designed to create the small brain lesions used in functional neurosurgery. The Gamma Knife apparatus was manufactured by Swedish enterprise Elekta Instrument AB, established in 1972 by the inventor and his son, Laurent Leksell. Techniques developed by Leksell are used as treatment for acoustic neuromas, pituitary tumors and craniopharyngiomas.
Leksell has worked also in neurophysiology and is considered to be one of the world's best neurosurgeons. His most recognized achievement was the explanation of the gamma motor system of the human nervous system. He became a professor of surgery at University of Lund, in 1958. From 1960 until his retirement, in 1974, he occupied the post of Professor of Neurosurgery at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
Mahmut Gazi Yasargil is a Turkish medical scientist and one of the most prominent neurosurgeons. Yasargil's contribution to the medicine science is the development of a floating microscope, an innovative instrumentation, self-retaining adjustable retractor, microsurgical instruments, and ergonomic aneurysm clips and appliers. His skills in developing and upgrading microsurgical instruments and techniques made possible lots of operations, previously considered inoperable.
His achievements in cerebrovascular neurosurgery (damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke) can be hardly overestimated. Over 20 years he performed 7500 operations until his retirement. Mahmut Gazi Yasargil taught three generations of neurosurgeons by defining everything in neurosurgery and showing how to actually perform operations. His revolutionary usage of microscope was a breakthrough in neurosurgery.
In Zurich, in the micro-neurosurgical anatomical lab, around 3000 colleagues from all continents and representing all surgical specialties were trained and instructed by him. He took part in several hundred national and international neurosurgical conferences, congresses, symposiums, and courses as a guest speaker. Yasargil has over 330 papers and 7 monographs. The six-volume publication "Microneurosurgery" (1984-1996) is the review of his broad experiences and a contribution to the neurosurgery science. Anybody who has even a fleeting interest in neurosurgery would do well to purchase these volumes.