Oral contraception: contraceptive pills are a combination of hormones that block natural ovulation. Modern contraceptive pills become popular for unlike oral contraceptives of the previous generation they contain relatively little percentage of hormones and are better for an organism. There are various types of pills that differ in what they are made of and only a specialist can decide which one fits you best.
Modern contraception enables you to pick up oral pills that cannot only be taken from a long time causing no harm to your organism but sometimes be a cure. If you take them on daily basis it prevents you from undesirable pregnancy rather effectively. Hormonal contraceptives (and that is another achievement of modern contraception proved by long research in contraception) do not cause sterilization and are of no harm to your future baby. You are able to get pregnant within 1-3 after you stop taking them.
Emergency hormonal contraception: this is the novelty you even couldn't dream of before, some decades ago, but presented now by modern contraception. Thanks to development in methods of contraception we can use medications that in their contents are like usual contraception pills but contain a higher dose of hormones. They are used in urgent cases, i.e. when during sexual contact the partners didn't use any methods of contraception. But these methods of contraception mustn't be used frequently.
Barrier methods of contraception: a loop is a small thing that is taken into the uterine cavity by the doctor. The contraception effect provided by the loop dues to its specific internal action inside the uterus doesn't let conception to happen. To make the effect last for a long time the loop must be replaced regularly by another one, it depends on its type. The loop is an effective contraception means, but it's recommended to be used by paporous women.
After the loop is taken out, a woman can get pregnant after a period of about 6 months. Male condom is the most popular and easy to get means of contraception that is rather reliable and has no contra-indication and can protect from sexually transmitted diseases as well. We can't say it's a device created by modern contraception, of course not, but modern scientists made it far more effective. Female condom is an analogue to a male condom but it's not as easy to use and not so that reliable in all respects.
The diaphragm is a thin elastic membrane that has a form of a cap that is placed on the cervix of the uterus and physically prevents from sperm getting inside. It must be correctly placed before the sexual contact begins and be there during 8-24 hours after it ends. As during the sexual act it can displace it always must go together with spermicidal - chemical substances that destroy sperm. They can be used either separately or in combination with other barrier methods of contraception.
Every method that concerns chemical basis is considered rather modern for earlier we were able to control fertility only via external methods (condoms) or not having sex in certain period or coitus-interruptus, but now a woman can have sex in ANY period and not worry of getting pregnant thanks to chemical medications.