The pregnancy control is very sophisticated and complex process. The little unnoticed and unchecked deviation can present the mortal danger for the defenseless baby or mother. One of the first items that run through the high-rate control is the level of the amniotic fluid level. The possible deviations are high amniotic level and low one.
The problem is really important as amniotic fluid plays some of the leading roles: it protects baby's body from trauma (it serves like a cushion in the case of tumbling); prevents umbilical cord from compression; keeps perfectly the temperature in the womb; serves as protection from different infection; provides free baby's moving that guarantees proper bones and muscle development; it serves for the development of digestive and respiratory systems, swallowing and inhaling the amniotic fluid.
It was discovered that amniotic fluid s formed during the first fourteen weeks of pregnancy, gradually the baby starts swallowing the amniotic fluid, operating it passing through the kidneys, afterwards excreting it as urine. That presents a cyclic process. Though sometime there happen some problems in this system that is resulted in the high amniotic fluid level or opposite side its low level.
Earlier the question of preferable amniotic fluid level was under the constant discussion; today the situation is obvious and indisputable. The normal pregnancy running means increasing of fluid amount until the 3rd trimester. The peak of the amniotic fluid increase occurs during the 34 weeks. It consists of a quarter of the stuff. Then the fluid level starts diminishing.
Oligohydramnios is the name of the phenomenon of low amniotic fluid level. The high amniotic fluid level is called polyhydramnios. There are few different methods of measuring of the fluid level with the usage of new technologies. The commonest one is the application of the amniotic fluid index.
Polyhydramnios diagnosis show that the most spread reasons of the problem are congenital defects, rh diseases, maternal diabetes, transfusion syndrome (caused by the reason of to wrong blood vessels connections in the placenta); or some other reasons that are still undiscovered (the amount of these reasons is impressive - 65%). The risks caused by the problem of high amniotic fluid are the difficulties with membrane (premature rapture); abruption of the placenta; the problems connected with baby's development: growth restrictions and skeletal deformations; stillbirth; the necessity of the cesarean method of delivery; preterm delivery; hemorrhage, etc. Those are some of effects of the problem of high amniotic fluid level.
Thanks to the quick development and advances of new technologies it is possible to find the solution for almost all problems. The first step of overcoming and even preventing the problem is close monitoring. The effective means are also considered to be medication (but it is not available after the 32 weeks of pregnancy); amnioreduction (draining of the fluid, sometimes it contains a certain risk); delivery of the baby. The importance of high amniotic fluid level is significant.