The ancient Greek and Roman sources show that even those old instruments had spent so many years in the ground, they did not remain sharp and cannot cut any more, but the fact is that they did not suffer from the contact with water or air that often happens to our metal things in the household.
Probably the ancient Greeks and Romans used a special mixture of different kinds of metals or even made a founding of some new ones that could help to prevent instruments from getting less sharp. Nowadays it is known throughout the world of a special sort of metal which is called very often medical metal. That is the metal all the spectrum surgical instruments is always made of. It is said that this type of metal has a special abilities of killing different microbes and germs, prevent tissue from bleeding by fulfilling it with some minerals while touching it. A lot of women, when got their ears done, prefer to wear earrings made of this type of metal for a better and faster healing. Probably it works.
So, the most common and widespread instruments within the full line of surgical instruments are scissors. They are very different depending on the function it usually performs: with a bigger handle or for cutting dome heavy tissue or ligaments if needed. Then there are tissue forceps, dressing forceps, and intestinal ones. The last are really long and have serrations. That explains its function : to deal with intestine.
There are also needle holders and scalpels. Scalpels are different depending not only on the purpose of them but on the size of surgeon`s hand. It plays a big role on surgeons techniques as the scalpel must follow every move of the hand. They also have different removable parts with serrations or without them depending on what the surgeon have to cut. There are also disposable scalpels probably widely used in some not hospital circumstances but during the war. They`re saved in a special pack without air in it so that it can be completely sterile.
The most horrible of all the instruments is usually the thing used for head trepanation and retractors. They look like scissors that with a lot of different details added up to the ends of the scissors` parts, sometimes very sharp. That is why on the boxes or packs where the instruments are there is also a couple of pictures that shows in case how to hold all the instruments.