Modern medicine knows different types of cancers. All of them are very serious diseases caused by mutations of DNA. There are several different reasons that can cause such mutations. In many cases cancer is caused by affection of chemicals, which are called carcinogens.
There are carcinogens which have natural origin (many plants produce them for protection) but much bigger number of carcinogens is man-produced. These mutations lead to uncontrolled division of cells and without needed treatment cancer leads to a death of a patient.
One of the widely spread kinds of cancer in women is so-called cervical cancer. The danger of this kind of cancer is that it is really hard to recognize. At earlier stages of cervical cancer there might be no symptoms of the disease at all. Such situation makes screening procedures very important - all the doctors recommend women to perform these procedures regularly.
The most usual procedure in cervical cancer diagnosis is Pap smear (it is called after the doctor Georgios Papanikolaou who used it for the first time). This simple procedure gives great effect in most of the cases. Of course, there is a possibility of a mistake - there are different reasons that can lead to a positive result of this test.
But if the result is positive it is a sign to make further testing. And advantage of this screening technique is that it is not invasive - only cervical swab is needed to collect sample cells. Then these cells are examined for abnormalities.
As for the cervical cancer treatment it is also not as harmful as treatment for many other kinds of cancer. In many cases with special surgery malignancy can be completely removed. Of course, results of this surgical operation can be different depending on a stage of cervical cancer.
For cervical cancer treatment on the stage A the removal of uterus together with the part of the vagina is needed. For the stage B cervical cancer treatment surgery can be much more serious. On earlier stages radical hysterectomy (with lymph nodes being removed) can be also used for cervical cancer treatment.
Radiation therapy is also used pretty often for cervical cancer treatment on earlier stages. These days special technique is used to perform beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer treatment.
There were many different studies on the disease early in the 20-th century. And statistical data were saying that there are certain factors that accompany the disease. So, more detailed studies were performed in this area.
They resulted with pretty interesting discovery - in all cases of cervical cancer so-called human papillomavirus (hpv-infection) was involved. There are different types of this virus and it was clearly shown that HPV 16, 18 and 33 types are implicated in cases of cervical cancer.
And not so long ago a special cervical cancer vaccine was developed. This vaccine lets immunity fight against two types of hpv-infection - 16 and 18. Different studies in this are still being performed to achieve better results in cervical cancer treatment.