Cellulose (Latin cellula,"little cell"), a polysaccharide (long chain polymer made up of sugars), the chief constituent of the cell wall of all plant cells. In plants, cellulose includes woody, fatty, or gummy substances. With some exceptions among insects, true cellulose is not found in animal tissues. Cellulose is insoluble in all ordinary solvents and may be readily separated from the other constituents of plants. Depending on its concentration, sulphuric acid acts on cellulose to produce glucose, soluble starch, or amyloid; the last is a form of starch used for the coating of parchment paper. When cellulose is treated with an alkali and then exposed to the fumes of carbon disulphide, the solution yields films and threads. Rayon and cellophane are cellulosic fibers regenerated from such solutions. Cellulose acetates are spun into fine filaments for the manufacture of some fabrics and are also used for photographic safety film, as a substitute for glass, for the manufacture of safety glass, and as a moulding material. Cellulose ethers are used in paper sizings, adhesives, soaps, and synthetic resins.
Cellulose includes a number of fibers, so the rest are non cellulosic fibres, that is chemically-based ones. The production of non-cellulosic fibers undergoes several stages. First of all necessary components are prepared and combined. Then the fiber is produced by means of spinning process. After that the fiber is twisted into yarn, packaged and sent to textile mills, where it will be either knitted or woven into fabric. Chemical fibers are solid originally. In order to be transformed into fibers substances are first converted into liquid. They may also be either dissolved by a solvent or melted.
As for the cellulosic fibres they are the result of purification of wood pulp. They are shredded first and dissolved afterwards. In the process of fibers forming, the fiber-forming substances have to pass through a special spinning process which is called spinneret. The appliance resembles a huge shower head and has hundreds of very small holes. Those holes sizes depend on the fiber's type which is to be produced.
Man-made fibers, unlike natural ones, can be extruded with the help of various tequniques. They are called denier. The term "denier" relates to fineness of fiber filament. The thick liquid, going through the spinneret, comes out as a stringy liquid on the other side and is called filament. It resembles airplane glue, an acetate product. While drying or solidifying, the substance is able to form a liquid called a continuous filament fibre. In order to make a continuous filament yarn they twist together several filament fibers. Then the yarn is knit or woven into fabric.
One of the fibers that cellulose includes is acetate. It is a soft, silk-like and drapable fiber. It is resistant to moth and shrink. It may be damaged by heat, mildew, silverfish and acetone. The fabric is used for producing blouses, foundation garments, linings, dresses, lingerie, shirts, sportswear and slacks. The fiber works in such cellulosic fibers as crepe, faille, lace, taffeta, brocade, double knit, jersey, satin and tricot. Cellulose includes rayon as well. It is characterized as highly absorbing, comfortable, soft and drapable. The textile may wrinkle easily and get weak when wet. It may be damaged by silverfish and mildew. A number of products are made with the help of the fiber: blouses, dresses, lingerie, millinery, rainwear, coats, jackets, linings, draperies, slacks, sportswear, sport shirts, suits, work clothes, ties and upholstery. And the last cellulosuc fiber that cellulose includes - is triacetate. The fiber is drapable, able to resist shrinking, wrinkling and stretching. It is also sensitive to mildew, acetone, silverfish and heat. It is often used in combinations with other synthetic fibers. Triacetate is used in production of dresses, sportswear, skirts, upholstery and draperies. The fiber may be washed in machine but at gentle cycle, with warm water and mild detergent. You may drip it dry or machine dry but at rather a low temperature.