The skin of each person is unique and possesses special individual charactistics. The shade and coloration of the skin is handed down through the generations and frequently defines the nationality of the person. The coloration of the skin is defined both by genetic factors, and external. The color and shade of the skin also depends on the quantity of pigments contained in it, the thickness of the epidermis, arrangements of blood vessels, and also on the structure of the skin.
The basis of pigmentation of skin is made with pigments, or, melanins, which are formed in the skin. The pigment melanin is formed in the skin by absorbing uv rays. The action of some bleaching creams and ointments is based on reducing production of melanin.
Bleaching preparations, that have a vegetative basis, in the last years have become especially popular, however, and so has all natural cosmetics. Till now, the most constant component used for bleaching, on a vegetative basis, is the extract of an ordinary bearberry. This plant also possesses connecting, antiseptic, recycling, and antioxidant action. In some cosmetic lines, the extract of root licorice is used as active skin whitening ingredients. In this plant glubridin is included, one of the most effective skin whitening ingredients.
The vegetative compositions used for bleaching provide a soft and gradual clarification of skin and also improve its general condition, having skin vitamins and other useful components. However, application of preparations on a vegetative basis does not provide for serious cosmetic problems, for example, a superfluous pigmentation (lentygo). Besides the application of preparations with vegetative components there is also the need to be careful of allergic reactions. Using cosmetic bleaching, then, means it is necessary to study carefully the structure of the basic skin whitening ingredients.
Among bleaching means there are stronger basis skin whitening ingredients and synthetic components such as copper, zinc, iron, hydroquinone, azelaic acid. However, to use hydroquinone you should be especially careful as it possesses a toxic action on your skin cells. Thereforea the concentration of hydroquinone should not exceed 1-2 %. In rare cases, when it is necessary to have your skin strongly pigmented quickly, this requires applying hydroquinone in a concentration of 4 %. Using hydroquinone in such strength should only be done with the supervision of an attending physician.
Besides, in a complex of bleaching procedures, it necessarily includes the exfoliation of the top pigmented layer of skin. Exfoliation of skin promotes removal of melanin from the epidermis, which results in clarification of pigmentary spots. With this purpose in mind, various kinds of peels are used.
The choice of peels depends on a kind and expressivenesses of hyper pigmentation. Now in the structure of cosmetic means for exfoliation skin include more often a-hydroxylated, such as glycolic, dairy, citric acids. However, recently it has become especially popular with people to use peels on the basis of fruit acids which softly and painlessly exfoliate cells and provide bleaching of skin.