Age (or liver) spots appear usually when people get older (over 50) and due to extra sun exposure on such human body areas as face, legs, arms, back, shoulders, etc. According to medical definition age spots are outward collections of skin pigment called melanin accumulated within the epidermis (the top layer of the skin). Such spots are pretty common for those who have lighter skin type and sunburn easily.
It's a common knowledge age spots occur due to repeated and prolonged exposure of the sun or sunburns. As a rule, they appear later in adult life. But be aware that children after brief periods of sun exposure can also sometimes suffer from age spots. That's why it its very important to take care of your skin and avoid any extra sun exposure. The most common way of prevention is, no doubt, using sunscreens with more than 15 sun protection factor.
Age spots are not harmful. But in case they become bigger or change the color an appropriate treating age spots will be essential. There are several treating age spots methods used in dermatological practice. It is very significant to treat not only the result (age spots), but also the cause of this pigments. Thus, inflammation, sun exposure and medications (melasma) should first be removed. Then - the darkly colored dead cells areas must be removed with antioxidants, exfoliation or vitamin A acid. Excessive melanin (age spots) formation can also be prevented with antioxidants and different lighteners.
Skin-lightening or "fade" products are often used for exfoliation which is aimed at not only removing of the darker skin cells but also reaching the surface and encouraging cells replacement. The mentioned method shortens the time for fading age spots and at the same time reduces roughness. Be aware that too aggressive exfoliation can make harm and encourage hyperpigmentation.
Vitamin A acid will be helpful for repairing cells and increasing their turnover. However, it can be irritating and drying. That's why it's necessary to consult your doctor before having the course of vitamin A treating age spots.
Much more in treating age spots can be performed by using different clinical skin pills. For example, dermabrasion, cryotherapy or freezing, laser treatments, etc. But if you have sensitive skin the mentioned methods may cause worsening of hyperpigmentation. Occasionally these methods leave scars and white spots. The more precise method of treating age spots is laser therapy because the light is used pretty selectively and removes only age spots on particular skin surface. So, the pigment spots are removes gently without any damaging of normal surrounding skin. It's worth admitting that less time will be spent to recover from laser therapy comparing with the one of non-laser. It will be less healing and pain.
People with fair skin are advised to use special skin bleaching creams. However, they can sometimes temporarily redden and irritate the skin.
Thus, it's important to know the peculiarities of your skin and health on the whole, to consult with your doctor to choose the most appropriate method of treating age spots.