After that discovery scientists started to develop methods of treatment of infertility in both spouses. Nevertheless, only in the 20th century assisted reproductive technologies began to be applied widely and effectively to treatment of infertility both of men and women. Artificial fertilization has helped thousand pairs to become parents. As a result of ART pregnancy comes in each fourth case.
More than ten various techniques are included into a number of modern ART. The choice of method depends on the diagnosis of disease, the decision of doctor and future parents. At present there is a set of the newest and alternative techniques, however in the given context it is necessary to lead brief art procedures review and ART procedures description classical and the most effective ART medical services.
In a number of the most productive and popular ART medical services include:
I. Endometrial insemination sperm of the husband.
II. Endometrial insemination of sperm of the donor
III. External fertilization (ECF).
IV. ECF+IXY- fertilization of ootid individual spermatozoon at subfecundity parameters sperm of the husband.
V. ECF+IXY+ MECA, TECA/TECE, PECA - fertilization of ootid with the help of method IXY with spermatozoa, received from testicles and/or an appendage of testicle men, at absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, i.e. at patients with the diagnosis of azoospermism. All of these art medical services are used depending on the type of infertility and degree of disease.
First two methods consist of introduction of sperm of the husband or donor sperms directly in the uterus of the woman. Insemination is carried out during the optimum period for conception.
The method of external fertilizations includes some stages: stimulation of superovulation with the help of hormonal preparations, extraction ootid from ovaries under the ultrasonic control over application of the general anesthesia, fertilization ootids preliminary processed, sperm of the husband or the donor, cultivation of embryos in nutrient mediums under special conditions of gas atmosphere and high humidity at temperature 37 within 2-5 days. Then follows the stage of carrying of 1-3 embryos in cavity of the uterus of the patient and maintenance of hormonal support for implantation of embryos. The given method can be used at the following diseases: Impassability or absence of uterine pipes, an endometriosis, hormonal infringements, and oligospermatism of the husband,
The method of ECF consists of direct microinjection of spermatozoa in cytoplasm of ootid and has high efficiency. The given method is used at heavy pathologies of man's reproductive bodies.
The method ECF+IXY+ MECA, TECA/ TECE, PECA is used at absence of seed canals or their impassability. The method is based on extraction of spermatozoa directly from testicle of men.
ART medical services can be applied separately, and in combination with other methods, however all ART medical services are selected by the doctor strictly on the basis of each married couple.