One of the ancient contraception methods that predates any other one is considered to be coitus-interruptus (this is when the penis is withdrawn from vagina before ejaculation). This technique became very useful for some men when people found out relationship between semen emission into vagina and the possibility of pregnancy. It is not a completely reliable technique of contraception, because few men have a necessary level of self-discipline to use this method correctly at every act.
Legends have recommended douching immediately after any intercourse as one of the ancient contraception methods, and though it seems to be a rational idea to clean an ejaculate out of vagina, it is useless due to the character of the fluid and a structure of women's reproductive tract - douching just spreads semen towards uterus.
There are some records that Egyptian women used ancient spermicide-pessary (vaginal suppository) that was made of different acidic substances. It was lubricated with oil and honey. It may have some effect for sperm killing. However, it's necessary to remind that the cell of sperm was not revealed until a scientist A.Van Leeuwenhoek invented his microscope in the middle of the seventeenth century. Ancient spermicide for Asian women was oiled paper used as a cervical cap, and Europeans used beeswax as one of the ancient contraception methods.
As to the other methods, the ancient condoms appeared in the 17th century, at first they were made of animal intestines. They were not very popular and as useful as latex condoms used nowadays, but they were in use as one of the ancient contraception methods in order to avoid syphilis that was really devastating before discovery of antibiotics, and other sexually transmitted infections.
Throughout the history people used different abortifacients, but many scientists don't believe that they should be among the ancient contraception methods. Only several of them were effective, some weren't though; the most effective of them are known to have had significant side effects. The intake of some poisons by women can disrupt their reproductive system. Girls drank solutions with arsenic and mercury or other very toxic substances. The level of devastating chemicals in herbs which can provoke a miscarriage is pretty high to damage kidney, heart, liver or other vital organs of women making these ancient contraception methods extremely dangerous.
It is also a reported fact that as one of the ancient contraception methods Arab traders inserted tiny stones in the uteruses of a camel to avoid pregnancy. This concept is very familiar to the intrauterine device used nowadays. This story has no historic basis. The first intrauterine devices were marketed in 1900. The first contemporary intrauterine device was described in 1909.
The Rhythm Method was founded in the twentieth century. Researchers discovered that women ovulate only once per cycle. All these methods are the most popular ancient contraception methods used since the earliest times.