As it is known, stockholders are the owners of the company, that is considered to be a body corporate. One of the main advantages of creating of a body corporate is limited legal liability. In other words, a stockholder takes the risk of losing his investment in the case of the company's financial collapse. However, as it is expected, the high risk has to be compensated with good incomes, so shareholders realize a profit because of the company's financial success. Having been distributed the percentages for the debt issues, stockholders can either get a profit in terms of dividends or leave it as the reserves.
So that, the share, which have the law of property can come under two categories - preference share and common stock. So, if these share present the law of property, therefore in all probability they also have to present the voting authority. Thus, they have the certain debt tool characteristics, which lead to the risk restriction and respectively to the profit restriction. As a rule, in this case the dividends are paid at the fixed annual rate. Nevertheless, some preference share are suggested to be the participation share. It means, that besides the right to get the fixed amount of dividends, they give a shareholder the right to get some percentages of the additional profit of an enterprise. The next version of preference share is connected with accumulating dividends year by year, when a company doesn't realize enough profit for paying them. According to the laws of many countries, companies have to pay their dividends, using their debt tools and if a company doesn't get enough profit, it has to use the capital for this purpose. Otherwise, it can lead to the company's liquidation.
The shareholders of the custom stock are the real owners of the company and they accept the highest risk, which is connected with it. In this case, the dividends are paid, if a company realizes a profit.
It should be pointed out, that custom actions of the company have to completely correspond to the interests of shareholders.
As it is known, at the present stage of the financial market development, corporate actions are considered to be one of the basic approaches to improve the enterprise's financial positions. As usual, these actions are effected without shareholder's participation. In fact, they allow a company to change the structure or organization of its share capital. It should be also pointed out, that there are the following corporate actions at the today's financial market: bonus emission, share issue, splitting of shares, consolidation and refund of the capital and etc.
Bonus emission is a "free" distribution of stock among all existent shareholders, taking into account the number of stock, which each of them possesses. As a result of these corporate actions a company doesn't attract new funds.
But if a company wants to attract new funds, it can use share issue. According to these corporate actions, a company can propose the additional share to its shareholders on the basis of the prior rights. It should be pointed out, that the prior rights are not given at the American market.
If a company has a purpose to decrease the nominal value of each share - splitting of shares is effected. In this case, the compensative number of stock is distributed among the existent stockholders to support the value of their holding of shares.
But if a company wants to increase the share's nominal value, in this case consolidation action takes place. In fact, the company cancels the necessary number of stock to save the same value of the share holding for each its stockholder.
In addition, if a company can't realize profit to pay the dividends of its shareholders - the refund of the capital is effected.