Fraud is treated in various law categories be it in criminal, academic, science or any other similar categories. In criminal law category, fraud is considered as a crime or serious offense. The fact of this offense is when a person who committed fraud had deceived another person while having the motive of damaging and obtaining the properties or services with prejudice. This act of fraud is usually complemented with a forged entity or object. For the academia and science category, falsification of facts is the basis of offense, especially if the falsification is done on research findings, which is treated as a scientific misconduct or known as an intellectual fraud. Intellectual fraud indicates falsification of thoughts and facts by the author or speaker of a book or debate to mislead the truths of the situation. This kind of fraud is similar with the journalistic fraud where falsification of journalistic facts and findings is made.
Methods of fraudulent acts can be done in various ways such as via phone, wire, mail and Internet, which are treated as an Internet fraud or computer crime. All fraudulent acts done with these methods are treated as criminal frauds. A criminal fraud may constitutes bait and switch, confidence tricks, dishonest advertising, identity theft, dishonest billing, forgery of documents or signatures, embezzlement, health fraud such as quack and fake medicines, dishonest insurance claims, bankruptcy fraud, investment frauds, and securities frauds.
As an additional offense of criminal act, fraud is also considered a type of civil law violation called the “tort”. Tort is a type of civil law violation where the law provides solution to the committed fraudulent act. This type commonly involved the intentionally act of preparing dishonest representations of a material fact having the intentions of deceiving another person. These dishonest representations can come in several forms that include dishonest statement facts, statement facts without any reasonable basis, promise of future performance made with an intent, statement of opinion based on dishonest statement of facts and other related dishonest representations.
One prevalent kind of fraud nowadays is the credit card fraud. In this kind of fraud, a business owner or service provider is being tricked in releasing goods or services wherein assured payment will be done through a credit card account. After the goods or services have been released, the business owner or service provider will not get any payment from the credit card account given by the buyer because the card is reclaimed or invalid. The process of credit card fraud is using a stolen credit card number or any computer generated card number in the purchase of goods and services online. This kind of fraud is mostly done online wherein fraudsters usually make online purchases of goods and services.